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    Dr. Christina Pakusch, M.Sc.

    picture

    Mail: Christina.Pakusch(at)uni-siegen.de

    Room: US-D 120

    Phone: –

    Further information only available in German: Christina Pakusch

    Publikationen

    2021


    • Pakusch, C., Boden, A., Stein, M. & Stevens, G. (2021)The Automation of the Taxi Industry – Taxi Drivers’ Expectations and Attitudes Towards the Future of their Work

      IN Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) doi:10.1007/s10606-021-09408-1
      [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

      Advocates of autonomous driving predict that the occupation of taxi driver could be made obsolete by shared autonomous vehicles (SAV) in the long term. Conducting interviews with German taxi drivers, we investigate how they perceive the changes caused by advancing automation for the future of their business. Our study contributes insights into how the work of taxi drivers could change given the advent of autonomous driving: While the task of driving could be taken over by SAVs for standard trips, taxi drivers are certain that other areas of their work such as providing supplementary services and assistance to passengers would constitute a limit to such forms of automation, but probably involving a shifting role for the taxi drivers, one which focuses on the sociality of the work. Our findings illustrate how taxi drivers see the future of their work, suggesting design implications for tools that take various forms of assistance into account, and demonstrating how important it is to consider taxi drivers in the co-design of future taxis and SAV services.

      @article{pakusch_automation_2021,
      title = {The {Automation} of the {Taxi} {Industry} – {Taxi} {Drivers}’ {Expectations} and {Attitudes} {Towards} the {Future} of their {Work}},
      issn = {1573-7551},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10606-021-09408-1},
      doi = {10.1007/s10606-021-09408-1},
      abstract = {Advocates of autonomous driving predict that the occupation of taxi driver could be made obsolete by shared autonomous vehicles (SAV) in the long term. Conducting interviews with German taxi drivers, we investigate how they perceive the changes caused by advancing automation for the future of their business. Our study contributes insights into how the work of taxi drivers could change given the advent of autonomous driving: While the task of driving could be taken over by SAVs for standard trips, taxi drivers are certain that other areas of their work such as providing supplementary services and assistance to passengers would constitute a limit to such forms of automation, but probably involving a shifting role for the taxi drivers, one which focuses on the sociality of the work. Our findings illustrate how taxi drivers see the future of their work, suggesting design implications for tools that take various forms of assistance into account, and demonstrating how important it is to consider taxi drivers in the co-design of future taxis and SAV services.},
      language = {en},
      urldate = {2021-09-13},
      journal = {Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)},
      author = {Pakusch, Christina and Boden, Alexander and Stein, Martin and Stevens, Gunnar},
      month = sep,
      year = {2021},
      }

    2020


    • Pakusch, C., Meurer, J., Tolmie, P. & Stevens, G. (2020)Traditional taxis vs automated taxis – Does the driver matter for Millennials?

      IN Travel Behaviour and Society, Vol. 21, Pages: 214–225 doi:10.1016/j.tbs.2020.06.009
      [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

      It is anticipated that autonomous vehicles will have a huge impact on the creation of sustainable smart cities and communities. One of the key concerns regarding autonomous vehicles is how automation may threaten jobs in the transport industry, including the traditional role of taxi drivers. To begin to explore how important an actual taxi driver is to customers and the extent to which they might be happy to have autonomous taxis replace traditional taxis, we conducted qualitative interviews with 34 Millennial-aged participants. These were problem-centered narrative interviews, largely conducted face-to-face, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Millennials were focused upon because, given current figures and likely future projections of use, they form the key market for prospective future autonomous taxis. The results show that the kind of taxi rides Millennials make are particularly suitable for automated taxis because interaction with a human driver is not a high priority for this group, while the prospect of autonomous taxis being cheaper is. Meanwhile the fate of taxi drivers does not play a significant part in how Millennials reason about this. An incidental finding, here, is that, by offering a convenient and affordable alternative, the advent of automated taxis may also pose a threat to public transportation.

      @article{pakusch_traditional_2020,
      title = {Traditional taxis vs automated taxis – {Does} the driver matter for {Millennials}?},
      volume = {21},
      issn = {2214-367X},
      url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214367X20301897},
      doi = {10.1016/j.tbs.2020.06.009},
      abstract = {It is anticipated that autonomous vehicles will have a huge impact on the creation of sustainable smart cities and communities. One of the key concerns regarding autonomous vehicles is how automation may threaten jobs in the transport industry, including the traditional role of taxi drivers. To begin to explore how important an actual taxi driver is to customers and the extent to which they might be happy to have autonomous taxis replace traditional taxis, we conducted qualitative interviews with 34 Millennial-aged participants. These were problem-centered narrative interviews, largely conducted face-to-face, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Millennials were focused upon because, given current figures and likely future projections of use, they form the key market for prospective future autonomous taxis. The results show that the kind of taxi rides Millennials make are particularly suitable for automated taxis because interaction with a human driver is not a high priority for this group, while the prospect of autonomous taxis being cheaper is. Meanwhile the fate of taxi drivers does not play a significant part in how Millennials reason about this. An incidental finding, here, is that, by offering a convenient and affordable alternative, the advent of automated taxis may also pose a threat to public transportation.},
      language = {en},
      urldate = {2021-04-16},
      journal = {Travel Behaviour and Society},
      author = {Pakusch, Christina and Meurer, Johanna and Tolmie, Peter and Stevens, Gunnar},
      month = oct,
      year = {2020},
      keywords = {Qualitative research, Automated taxis, Interview study, Millennials, Mobility behavior, Shared autonomous vehicles, Sharing economies, Social sustainability, Travel mode choice},
      pages = {214--225},
      }


    • Meurer, J., Pakusch, C., Stevens, G., Randall, D. & Wulf, V. (2020)A Wizard of Oz Study on Passengers’ Experiences of a Robo-Taxi Service in Real-Life Settings

      Proceedings of the 2020 ACM Designing Interactive Systems Conference. New York, NY, USA, Publisher: Association for Computing Machinery, Pages: 1365–1377 doi:10.1145/3357236.3395465
      [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

      Autonomous driving enables new mobility concepts such as shared-autonomous services. Although significant re-search has been done on passenger-car interaction, work on passenger interaction with robo-taxis is still rare. In this paper, we tackle the question of how passengers experience robo-taxis as a service in real-life settings to inform the interaction design. We conducted a Wizard of Oz study with an electric vehicle where the driver was hidden from the passenger to simulate the service experience of a robo-taxi. 10 participants had the opportunity to use the simulated shared-autonomous service in real-life situations for one week. By the week’s end, 33 rides were completed and recorded on video. Also, we flanked the study conducting interviews before and after with all participants. The findings provided insights into four design themes that could inform the service design of robo-taxis along the different stages including hailing, pick-up, travel, and drop-off.

      @inproceedings{meurer_wizard_2020,
      address = {New York, NY, USA},
      series = {{DIS} '20},
      title = {A {Wizard} of {Oz} {Study} on {Passengers}' {Experiences} of a {Robo}-{Taxi} {Service} in {Real}-{Life} {Settings}},
      isbn = {978-1-4503-6974-9},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3357236.3395465},
      doi = {10.1145/3357236.3395465},
      abstract = {Autonomous driving enables new mobility concepts such as shared-autonomous services. Although significant re-search has been done on passenger-car interaction, work on passenger interaction with robo-taxis is still rare. In this paper, we tackle the question of how passengers experience robo-taxis as a service in real-life settings to inform the interaction design. We conducted a Wizard of Oz study with an electric vehicle where the driver was hidden from the passenger to simulate the service experience of a robo-taxi. 10 participants had the opportunity to use the simulated shared-autonomous service in real-life situations for one week. By the week's end, 33 rides were completed and recorded on video. Also, we flanked the study conducting interviews before and after with all participants. The findings provided insights into four design themes that could inform the service design of robo-taxis along the different stages including hailing, pick-up, travel, and drop-off.},
      urldate = {2021-04-15},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2020 {ACM} {Designing} {Interactive} {Systems} {Conference}},
      publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
      author = {Meurer, Johanna and Pakusch, Christina and Stevens, Gunnar and Randall, Dave and Wulf, Volker},
      month = jul,
      year = {2020},
      keywords = {passengers, robo-taxi, service design, shared autonomous vehicles, wizard of oz},
      pages = {1365--1377},
      }


    • Bossauer, P., Neifer, T., Stevens, G. & Pakusch, C. (2020)Trust versus Privacy: Using Connected Car Data in Peer-to-Peer Carsharing

      Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York, NY, USA, Publisher: Association for Computing Machinery, Pages: 1–13 doi:10.1145/3313831.3376555
      [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

      Trust is the lubricant of the sharing economy. This is true especially in peer-to-peer carsharing, in which one leaves a highly valuable good to a stranger in the hope of getting it back unscathed. Nowadays, ratings of other users are major mechanisms for establishing trust. To foster uptake of peer-to-peer carsharing, connected car technology opens new possibilities to support trust-building, e.g., by adding driving behavior statistics to users’ profiles. However, collecting such data intrudes into rentees’ privacy. To explore the tension between the need for trust and privacy demands, we conducted three focus group and eight individual interviews. Our results show that connected car technologies can increase trust for car owners and rentees not only before but also during and after rentals. The design of such systems must allow a differentiation between information in terms of type, the context, and the negotiability of information disclosure.

      @inproceedings{bossauer_trust_2020,
      address = {New York, NY, USA},
      series = {{CHI} '20},
      title = {Trust versus {Privacy}: {Using} {Connected} {Car} {Data} in {Peer}-to-{Peer} {Carsharing}},
      isbn = {978-1-4503-6708-0},
      shorttitle = {Trust versus {Privacy}},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3313831.3376555},
      doi = {10.1145/3313831.3376555},
      abstract = {Trust is the lubricant of the sharing economy. This is true especially in peer-to-peer carsharing, in which one leaves a highly valuable good to a stranger in the hope of getting it back unscathed. Nowadays, ratings of other users are major mechanisms for establishing trust. To foster uptake of peer-to-peer carsharing, connected car technology opens new possibilities to support trust-building, e.g., by adding driving behavior statistics to users' profiles. However, collecting such data intrudes into rentees' privacy. To explore the tension between the need for trust and privacy demands, we conducted three focus group and eight individual interviews. Our results show that connected car technologies can increase trust for car owners and rentees not only before but also during and after rentals. The design of such systems must allow a differentiation between information in terms of type, the context, and the negotiability of information disclosure.},
      urldate = {2021-04-15},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2020 {CHI} {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems}},
      publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
      author = {Bossauer, Paul and Neifer, Thomas and Stevens, Gunnar and Pakusch, Christina},
      month = apr,
      year = {2020},
      keywords = {privacy, connected car, peer-to-peer carsharing, trust, a-paper},
      pages = {1--13},
      }


    • Pakusch, C., Bossauer, P., Meurer, J. & Stevens, G. (2020)Walking the Tightrope: Designing Autonomous Vehicles for Comfort and for Sustainability

      [BibTeX] [Abstract]

      Given current traffic problems, transport-induced air pollution and climate damaging emissions, researchers are investigating potentials of autonomous vehicles (AVs) to contribute to a more sustainable mobility. Some studies, however, indicate that the introduction of AVs may cause rebound effects that could further harm the environment such unintended modal shifts. Currently focusing on user experience design, there is an urgent need for HCI researchers to consider such negative consequences in order to responsibly design sustainable AVs.

      @book{pakusch_walking_2020,
      title = {Walking the {Tightrope}: {Designing} {Autonomous} {Vehicles} for {Comfort} and for {Sustainability}},
      shorttitle = {Walking the {Tightrope}},
      abstract = {Given current traffic problems, transport-induced air pollution and climate damaging emissions, researchers are investigating potentials of autonomous vehicles (AVs) to contribute to a more sustainable mobility. Some studies, however, indicate that the introduction of AVs may cause rebound effects that could further harm the environment such unintended modal shifts. Currently focusing on user experience design, there is an urgent need for HCI researchers to consider such negative consequences in order to responsibly design sustainable AVs.},
      author = {Pakusch, Christina and Bossauer, Paul and Meurer, Johanna and Stevens, Gunnar},
      month = apr,
      year = {2020},
      }


    • Pakusch, C., Bossauer, P. & Stevens, G. (2020)The Unintended Social Consequences of Driverless Mobility Services – How will Taxi Drivers and their Customers Be Affected?

      , Bristol, UK doi:10.1145/3401335.3401346
      [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

      @book{pakusch_unintended_2020,
      address = {Bristol, UK},
      title = {The {Unintended} {Social} {Consequences} of {Driverless} {Mobility} {Services} – {How} will {Taxi} {Drivers} and their {Customers} {Be} {Affected}?},
      url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Social-Consequences_Preprint.pdf},
      author = {Pakusch, Christina and Bossauer, Paul and Stevens, Gunnar},
      year = {2020},
      doi = {10.1145/3401335.3401346},
      annote = {Publication Title: ICT4S2020},
      }


    • Pakusch, C. (2020)Technology assessment of autonomous driving – are shared autonomous vehicles ecologically and socially sustainable?

      doi:10.25819/ubsi/8475
      [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

      Since its advent, the sustainability effects of the modern sharing economy have been the subject of controversial debate. While its potential was initially discussed in terms of post-ownership development with a view to decentralizing value creation and increasing social capital and environmental relief through better utilization of material goods, critics have become increasingly loud in recent years. Many people hoped that carsharing could lead to development away from ownership towards flexible use and thus more resource-efficient mobility. However, carsharing remains niche, and while many people like the idea in general, they appear to consider carsharing to not be advantageous as a means of transport in terms of cost, flexibility, and comfort. A key innovation that could elevate carsharing from its niche existence in the future is autonomous driving. This technology could help shared mobility gain a new boost by allowing it to overcome the weaknesses of the present carsharing business model. Flexibility and comfort could be greatly enhanced with shared autonomous vehicles (SAVs), which could simultaneously offer benefits in terms of low cost, and better use of time without the burden of vehicle ownership. However, it is not the technology itself that is sustainable; rather, sustainability depends on the way in which this technology is used. Hence, it is necessary to make a prospective assessment of the direct and indirect (un)sustainable effects before or during the development of a technology in order to incorporate these findings into the design and decision-making process. Transport research has been intensively analyzing the possible economic, social, and ecological consequences of autonomous driving for several years. However, research lacks knowledge about the consequences to be expected from shared autonomous vehicles. Moreover, previous findings are mostly based on the knowledge of experts, while potential users are rarely included in the research. To address this gap, this thesis contributes to answering the questions of what the ecological and social impacts of the expected concept of SAVs will be. In my thesis, I study in particular the ecological consequences of SAVs in terms of the potential modal shifts they can induce as well as their social consequences in terms of potential job losses in the taxi industry. Regarding this, I apply a user-oriented, mixed-method technology assessment approach that complements existing, expert-oriented technology assessment studies on autonomous driving that have so far been dominated by scenario analyses and simulations. To answer the two questions, I triangulated the method of scenario analysis and qualitative and quantitative user studies. The empirical studies provide evidence that the automation of mobility services such as carsharing may to a small extent foster a shift from the private vehicle towards mobility on demand. However, findings also indicate that rebound effects are to be expected: Significantly more users are expected to move away from the more sustainable public transportation, leading to an overcompensation of the positive modal shift effects by the negative modal shift effects. The results show that a large proportion of the taxi trips carried out can be re-placed by SAVs, making the profession of taxi driver somewhat obsolete. However, interviews with taxi drivers themselves revealed that the services provided by the drivers go beyond mere transport, so that even in the age of SAVs, the need for human assistance will continue – though to a smaller extent. Given these findings, I see action potential at different levels: users, mobility service providers, and policymakers. Regarding environmental and social impacts resulting from the use of SAVs, there is a strong conflict of objectives among users, potential SAV operators, and sustainable environmental and social policies. In order to strengthen the positive effects and counteract the negative effects, such as unintended modal shifts, policies may soon have to regulate the design of SAVs and their introduction. A key starting point for transport policy is to promote the use of more environmentally friendly means of transport, in particular by making public transportation attractive and, if necessary, by making the use of individual motorized mobility less attractive. The taxi industry must face the challenges of automation by opening up to these developments and focusing on service orientation – to strengthen the drivers’ main unique selling point compared to automated technology. Assessing the impacts of the not-yet-existing generally involves great uncertainty. With the results of my work, however, I would like to argue that a user-oriented technology assessment can usefully complement the findings of classic methods of technology assessment and can iteratively inform the development process regarding technology and regulation.

      @article{pakusch_technology_2020,
      title = {Technology assessment of autonomous driving – are shared autonomous vehicles ecologically and socially sustainable?},
      copyright = {Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International},
      url = {https://dspace.ub.uni-siegen.de/handle/ubsi/1846},
      doi = {10.25819/ubsi/8475},
      abstract = {Since its advent, the sustainability effects of the modern sharing economy have been the subject of controversial debate. While its potential was initially discussed in terms of post-ownership development with a view to decentralizing value creation and increasing social capital and environmental relief through better utilization of material goods, critics have become increasingly loud in recent years. Many people hoped that carsharing could lead to development away from ownership towards flexible use and thus more resource-efficient mobility. However, carsharing remains niche, and while many people like the idea in general, they appear to consider carsharing to not be advantageous as a means of transport in terms of cost, flexibility, and comfort. A key innovation that could elevate carsharing from its niche existence in the future is autonomous driving. This technology could help shared mobility gain a new boost by allowing it to overcome the weaknesses of the present carsharing business model. Flexibility and comfort could be greatly enhanced with shared autonomous vehicles (SAVs), which could simultaneously offer benefits in terms of low cost, and better use of time without the burden of vehicle ownership. However, it is not the technology itself that is sustainable; rather, sustainability depends on the way in which this technology is used. Hence, it is necessary to make a prospective assessment of the direct and indirect (un)sustainable effects before or during the development of a technology in order to incorporate these findings into the design and decision-making process. Transport research has been intensively analyzing the possible economic, social, and ecological consequences of autonomous driving for several years. However, research lacks knowledge about the consequences to be expected from shared autonomous vehicles. Moreover, previous findings are mostly based on the knowledge of experts, while potential users are rarely included in the research. To address this gap, this thesis contributes to answering the questions of what the ecological and social impacts of the expected concept of SAVs will be. In my thesis, I study in particular the ecological consequences of SAVs in terms of the potential modal shifts they can induce as well as their social consequences in terms of potential job losses in the taxi industry. Regarding this, I apply a user-oriented, mixed-method technology assessment approach that complements existing, expert-oriented technology assessment studies on autonomous driving that have so far been dominated by scenario analyses and simulations. To answer the two questions, I triangulated the method of scenario analysis and qualitative and quantitative user studies. The empirical studies provide evidence that the automation of mobility services such as carsharing may to a small extent foster a shift from the private vehicle towards mobility on demand. However, findings also indicate that rebound effects are to be expected: Significantly more users are expected to move away from the more sustainable public transportation, leading to an overcompensation of the positive modal shift effects by the negative modal shift effects. The results show that a large proportion of the taxi trips carried out can be re-placed by SAVs, making the profession of taxi driver somewhat obsolete. However, interviews with taxi drivers themselves revealed that the services provided by the drivers go beyond mere transport, so that even in the age of SAVs, the need for human assistance will continue – though to a smaller extent. Given these findings, I see action potential at different levels: users, mobility service providers, and policymakers. Regarding environmental and social impacts resulting from the use of SAVs, there is a strong conflict of objectives among users, potential SAV operators, and sustainable environmental and social policies. In order to strengthen the positive effects and counteract the negative effects, such as unintended modal shifts, policies may soon have to regulate the design of SAVs and their introduction. A key starting point for transport policy is to promote the use of more environmentally friendly means of transport, in particular by making public transportation attractive and, if necessary, by making the use of individual motorized mobility less attractive. The taxi industry must face the challenges of automation by opening up to these developments and focusing on service orientation – to strengthen the drivers’ main unique selling point compared to automated technology. Assessing the impacts of the not-yet-existing generally involves great uncertainty. With the results of my work, however, I would like to argue that a user-oriented technology assessment can usefully complement the findings of classic methods of technology assessment and can iteratively inform the development process regarding technology and regulation.},
      language = {en},
      urldate = {2021-04-15},
      author = {Pakusch, Christina},
      year = {2020},
      keywords = {thesis},
      annote = {Accepted: 2021-02-22T09:19:16Z},
      }


    • Bossauer, P., Schreiber, D., Neifer, T., Pakusch, C. & Stevens, G. (2020)Dezentralisierung der Sharing Economy – Potentiale Blockchain-basierter Sharing-Plattformen

      Wirtschaftsinformatik. doi:10.30844/wi_2020_b3-bossauer
      [BibTeX] [Abstract]

      Bei genauer Betrachtung heutiger Sharing Plattformen wie AirBnB, Uber, Drivy oder Fairleihen fallt auf, dass diese eines gemein haben. Als Plattformokonomien basieren sie auf mindestens zwei Nutzergruppen, Anbietern und Nachfragern fur Guter oder Dienstleistungen. Ein Problem solcher zweioder mehrseitigen Markte ist jedoch haufig, dass der Wertezuwachs, der durch die Nutzer generiert wird, nicht gleichmasig unter der Plattform und den aktiven Nutzern verteilt wird, sondern meist ausschlieslich als Gewinn an die Plattformen geht. Mit der Blockchain-Technologie konnte dieses Problem gelost werden, indem der Informations- und Wertetransfer sicher und dezentral organisiert wird und viele Funktionen traditioneller Intermediare dadurch obsolet werden. Diese Arbeit bietet einen Uberblick uber Anwendungsfelder und das Grundkonzept der Sharing Economy. Wir zeigen auf, wie sich Geschaftsmodelle und Infrastrukturen in einer Blockchain abbilden lassen, welche Potentiale eine Blockchain-basierte Infrastruktur bietet, wann diese in der Sharing Economy sinnvoll sein kann und welche Probleme dadurch gelost werden konnen.

      @inproceedings{bossauer_dezentralisierung_2020,
      title = {Dezentralisierung der {Sharing} {Economy} - {Potentiale} {Blockchain}-basierter {Sharing}-{Plattformen}},
      doi = {10.30844/wi_2020_b3-bossauer},
      abstract = {Bei genauer Betrachtung heutiger Sharing Plattformen wie AirBnB, Uber, Drivy oder Fairleihen fallt auf, dass diese eines gemein haben. Als Plattformokonomien basieren sie auf mindestens zwei Nutzergruppen, Anbietern und Nachfragern fur Guter oder Dienstleistungen. Ein Problem solcher zweioder mehrseitigen Markte ist jedoch haufig, dass der Wertezuwachs, der durch die Nutzer generiert wird, nicht gleichmasig unter der Plattform und den aktiven Nutzern verteilt wird, sondern meist ausschlieslich als Gewinn an die Plattformen geht. Mit der Blockchain-Technologie konnte dieses Problem gelost werden, indem der Informations- und Wertetransfer sicher und dezentral organisiert wird und viele Funktionen traditioneller Intermediare dadurch obsolet werden. Diese Arbeit bietet einen Uberblick uber Anwendungsfelder und das Grundkonzept der Sharing Economy. Wir zeigen auf, wie sich Geschaftsmodelle und Infrastrukturen in einer Blockchain abbilden lassen, welche Potentiale eine Blockchain-basierte Infrastruktur bietet, wann diese in der Sharing Economy sinnvoll sein kann und welche Probleme dadurch gelost werden konnen.},
      booktitle = {Wirtschaftsinformatik},
      author = {Bossauer, Paul and Schreiber, D. and Neifer, Thomas and Pakusch, Christina and Stevens, Gunnar},
      year = {2020},
      }


    • Hahn, A., Pakusch, C. & Stevens, G. (2020)Die Zukunft der Bushaltestelle vor dem Hintergrund von Mobility-as-a-Service – Eine qualitative Betrachtung des öffentlichen Personennahverkehrs in Deutschland

      IN HMD Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik, Pages: 18
      [BibTeX] [Abstract]

      In the recent past, the Federal Republic of Germany has experienced an increase in diesel driving bans in large cities. At the same time, large cities are becoming increasingly popular as the centre of life. Transport companies need to offer the population sustainable mobility solutions that enable maximum flexibility. Modern Mobility-as-a-Service-concepts and innovations in mobility are questioning the classic, plan-oriented, local public transport system and thus also the existence of bus stops. Qualitative expert interviews show that bus stops in city centres will change: One reason being the increasing digital networking of mobility providers and the resulting modern Mobility-as-a-Service-concepts. The results indicate that the bus stop in the inner cities will remain in the future and will be supplemented by on-demand traffic. A radical change, such as the nationwide adoption of autonomous buses, could lead to a complete renewal of the bus stop in the long term.

      @article{hahn_zukunft_2020,
      title = {Die {Zukunft} der {Bushaltestelle} vor dem {Hintergrund} von {Mobility}-as-a-{Service} – {Eine} qualitative {Betrachtung} des öffentlichen {Personennahverkehrs} in {Deutschland}},
      abstract = {In the recent past, the Federal Republic of Germany has experienced an increase in diesel driving bans in large cities. At the same time, large cities are becoming increasingly popular as the centre of life. Transport companies need to offer the population sustainable mobility solutions that enable maximum flexibility. Modern Mobility-as-a-Service-concepts and innovations in mobility are questioning the classic, plan-oriented, local public transport system and thus also the existence of bus stops. Qualitative expert interviews show that bus stops in city centres will change: One reason being the increasing digital networking of mobility providers and the resulting modern Mobility-as-a-Service-concepts. The results indicate that the bus stop in the inner cities will remain in the future and will be supplemented by on-demand traffic. A radical change, such as the nationwide adoption of autonomous buses, could lead to a complete renewal of the bus stop in the long term.},
      language = {de},
      journal = {HMD Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik},
      author = {Hahn, Andreas and Pakusch, Christina and Stevens, Gunnar},
      year = {2020},
      pages = {18},
      }


    • Pakusch, C. (2020)Technology assessment of autonomous driving–are shared autonomous vehicles ecologically and socially sustainable?

      [BibTeX]

      @article{pakusch_technology_2020-1,
      title = {Technology assessment of autonomous driving–are shared autonomous vehicles ecologically and socially sustainable?},
      author = {Pakusch, Christina},
      year = {2020},
      }

    2019


    • Meurer, J., Lawo, D., Pakusch, C., Tolmie, P. & Wulf, V. (2019)Opportunities for Sustainable Mobility: Re-thinking Eco-feedback from a Citizen’s Perspective

      Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Communities & Technologies – Transforming Communities. New York, NY, USA, Publisher: ACM, Pages: 102–113 doi:10.1145/3328320.3328391
      [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

      @inproceedings{meurer_opportunities_2019,
      address = {New York, NY, USA},
      series = {C\&\#38;{T} '19},
      title = {Opportunities for {Sustainable} {Mobility}: {Re}-thinking {Eco}-feedback from a {Citizen}'s {Perspective}},
      isbn = {978-1-4503-7162-9},
      url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3328320.3328391},
      doi = {10.1145/3328320.3328391},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th {International} {Conference} on {Communities} \& {Technologies} - {Transforming} {Communities}},
      publisher = {ACM},
      author = {Meurer, Johanna and Lawo, Dennis and Pakusch, Christina and Tolmie, Peter and Wulf, Volker},
      year = {2019},
      keywords = {eco-feedback tools, interview study, mobile phone data, mobility, Sustainable mobility},
      pages = {102--113},
      }


    • Stevens, G., Meurer, J., Pakusch, C. & Bossauer, P. (2019)Investigating Car Futures from Different Angles

      doi:10.18420/muc2019-ws-453
      [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

      The design of self-driving cars is one of the most exciting and ambitious challenges of our days and every day, new research work is published. In order to give an orientation, this article will present an overview of various methods used to study the human side of autonomous driving. Simplifying roughly, you can distinguish between design science-oriented methods (such as Research through Design, Wizard of Oz or driving simulator ) and behavioral science methods (such as survey, interview, and observation). We show how these methods are adopted in the context of autonomous driving research and dis-cuss their strengths and weaknesses. Due to the complexity of the topic, we will show that mixed method approaches will be suitable to explore the impact of autonomous driving on different levels: the individual, the social interaction and society.

      @article{stevens_investigating_2019,
      title = {Investigating {Car} {Futures} from {Different} {Angles}},
      url = {http://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/25194},
      doi = {10.18420/muc2019-ws-453},
      abstract = {The design of self-driving cars is one of the most exciting and ambitious challenges of our days and every day, new research work is published. In order to give an orientation, this article will present an overview of various methods used to study the human side of autonomous driving. Simplifying roughly, you can distinguish between design science-oriented methods (such as Research through Design, Wizard of Oz or driving simulator ) and behavioral science methods (such as survey, interview, and observation). We show how these methods are adopted in the context of autonomous driving research and dis-cuss their strengths and weaknesses. Due to the complexity of the topic, we will show that mixed method approaches will be suitable to explore the impact of autonomous driving on different levels: the individual, the social interaction and society.},
      language = {en},
      urldate = {2021-04-16},
      author = {Stevens, Gunnar and Meurer, Johanna and Pakusch, Christina and Bossauer, Paul},
      year = {2019},
      note = {Accepted: 2019-09-05T01:05:23Z
      Publisher: Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
      }


    • Stevens, G., Bossauer, P., Vonholdt, S. & Pakusch, C. (2019)Using Time and Space Efficiently in Driverless Cars: Findings of a Co-Design Study

      Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems., Pages: 1–14
      [BibTeX]

      @inproceedings{stevens_using_2019,
      title = {Using {Time} and {Space} {Efficiently} in {Driverless} {Cars}: {Findings} of a {Co}-{Design} {Study}},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2019 {CHI} {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems}},
      author = {Stevens, Gunnar and Bossauer, Paul and Vonholdt, Stephanie and Pakusch, Christina},
      year = {2019},
      keywords = {a-paper},
      pages = {1--14},
      }

    2018


    • Stevens, G., Bossauer, P., Jakobi, T. & Pakusch, C. (2018)Mehrseitiges Vertrauen bei IoT-basierten Reputationssystemen

      IN Mensch und Computer 2018-Workshopband
      [BibTeX]

      @article{stevens_mehrseitiges_2018,
      title = {Mehrseitiges {Vertrauen} bei {IoT}-basierten {Reputationssystemen}},
      journal = {Mensch und Computer 2018-Workshopband},
      author = {Stevens, Gunnar and Bossauer, Paul and Jakobi, Timo and Pakusch, Christina},
      year = {2018},
      }


    • Pakusch, C., Stevens, G. & Bossauer, P. (2018)Shared Autonomous Vehicles: Potentials for a Sustainable Mobility and Risks of Unintended Effects.

      ICT4S., Pages: 258–269
      [BibTeX]

      @inproceedings{pakusch_shared_2018,
      title = {Shared {Autonomous} {Vehicles}: {Potentials} for a {Sustainable} {Mobility} and {Risks} of {Unintended} {Effects}.},
      booktitle = {{ICT4S}},
      author = {Pakusch, Christina and Stevens, Gunnar and Bossauer, Paul},
      year = {2018},
      pages = {258--269},
      }


    • Pakusch, C., Weber, T., Stevens, G. & Bossauer, P. (2018)Akzeptanz autonomer Verkehrsmittel: Eine Analyse relativer Mehrwerte selbstfahrender Autos im Vergleich zu heutigen Verkehrsmitteln

      IN Proceedings of the Tagungsband Wirtschaftsinformatik, Pages: 938–949
      [BibTeX]

      @article{pakusch_akzeptanz_2018,
      title = {Akzeptanz autonomer {Verkehrsmittel}: {Eine} {Analyse} relativer {Mehrwerte} selbstfahrender {Autos} im {Vergleich} zu heutigen {Verkehrsmitteln}},
      journal = {Proceedings of the Tagungsband Wirtschaftsinformatik},
      author = {Pakusch, Christina and Weber, Tobias and Stevens, Gunnar and Bossauer, Paul},
      year = {2018},
      pages = {938--949},
      }


    • Pakusch, C., Stevens, G., Bossauer, P. & Weber, T. (2018)The Users’ Perspective on Autonomous Driving

      [BibTeX]

      @article{pakusch_users_2018,
      title = {The {Users}' {Perspective} on {Autonomous} {Driving}},
      author = {Pakusch, Christina and Stevens, Gunnar and Bossauer, Paul and Weber, Tobias},
      year = {2018},
      }


    • Pakusch, C., Neifer, T., Bossauer, P. & Stevens, G. (2018)P2P-Carsharing. Motive, Ängste und Barrieren bei der Teilnahme-eine explorative Studie

      IN Internationales Verkehrswesen, Vol. 70
      [BibTeX]

      @article{pakusch_p2p-carsharing_2018,
      title = {{P2P}-{Carsharing}. {Motive}, Ängste und {Barrieren} bei der {Teilnahme}-eine explorative {Studie}},
      volume = {70},
      number = {4},
      journal = {Internationales Verkehrswesen},
      author = {Pakusch, Christina and Neifer, Thomas and Bossauer, Paul and Stevens, Gunnar},
      year = {2018},
      }

    2017


    • Woedl, S., Pakusch, C., Bossauer, P. & Stevens, G. (2017)Auswirkung vollautomatisierter PKWs auf die Verkehrsmittelwahl

      IN Internationales Verkehrswesen, Pages: 68–72
      [BibTeX]

      @article{woedl_auswirkung_2017,
      title = {Auswirkung vollautomatisierter {PKWs} auf die {Verkehrsmittelwahl}},
      number = {3},
      journal = {Internationales Verkehrswesen},
      author = {Woedl, Sebastian and Pakusch, Christina and Bossauer, Paul and Stevens, Gunnar},
      year = {2017},
      keywords = {PRAXLABS},
      pages = {68--72},
      }


    • Stevens, G., Bossauer, P., Jakobi, T. & Pakusch, C. (2017)Second Dashboard: Information Demands in a Connected Car

      IN Mensch und Computer 2017-Tagungsband
      [BibTeX]

      @article{stevens_second_2017,
      title = {Second {Dashboard}: {Information} {Demands} in a {Connected} {Car}},
      journal = {Mensch und Computer 2017-Tagungsband},
      author = {Stevens, Gunnar and Bossauer, Paul and Jakobi, Timo and Pakusch, Christina},
      year = {2017},
      annote = {Publisher: Gesellschaft f\{ü\}r Informatik eV},
      }

    2016


    • Stevens, G., Meurer, J., Pakusch, C. & Bossauer, P. (2016)From a Driver-centric towards a Service-centric lens on Self-Driving Cars

      CHI 2016 Workshop: HCI and Autonomous Vehicles: Contextual Experience Informs Design. San José, USA.
      [BibTeX]

      @inproceedings{stevens_driver-centric_2016,
      title = {From a {Driver}-centric towards a {Service}-centric lens on {Self}-{Driving} {Cars}},
      booktitle = {{CHI} 2016 {Workshop}: {HCI} and {Autonomous} {Vehicles}: {Contextual} {Experience} {Informs} {Design}. {San} {José}, {USA}},
      author = {Stevens, Gunnar and Meurer, Johanna and Pakusch, Christina and Bossauer, Paul},
      year = {2016},
      keywords = {PRAXLABS, a-paper},
      }


    • Pakusch, C., Bossauer, P., Meurer, J. & Stevens, G. (2016)Computergestuetzte Mobilitaetsforschung. Fragestellungen, Daten und Methoden

      IN Internationales Verkehrswesen, Pages: 57–60
      [BibTeX]

      @article{pakusch_computergestuetzte_2016,
      title = {Computergestuetzte {Mobilitaetsforschung}. {Fragestellungen}, {Daten} und {Methoden}},
      issn = {0020-9511},
      number = {4},
      journal = {Internationales Verkehrswesen},
      author = {Pakusch, Christina and Bossauer, Paul and Meurer, Johanna and Stevens, Gunnar},
      year = {2016},
      pages = {57--60},
      }


    • Pakusch, C., Bossauer, P., Shakoor, M. & Stevens, G. (2016)Using, Sharing, and Owning Smart Cars-A Future Scenario Analysis Taking General Socio-Technical Trends into Account

      [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

      @article{pakusch_using_2016,
      title = {Using, {Sharing}, and {Owning} {Smart} {Cars}-{A} {Future} {Scenario} {Analysis} {Taking} {General} {Socio}-{Technical} {Trends} into {Account}},
      url = {https://pub.h-brs.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/2739},
      author = {Pakusch, Christina and Bossauer, Paul and Shakoor, Markus and Stevens, Gunnar},
      year = {2016},
      keywords = {DBL},
      }